The Rebellious Life of Mrs. Rosa Parks by Jeanne Theoharis2014 NAACP Image Award Winner: Outstanding Literary Work – Biography / Auto Biography
2013 Letitia Woods Brown Award from the Association of Black Women Historians
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The definitive political biography of Rosa Parks examines her six decades of activism, challenging perceptions of her as an accidental actor in the civil rights movement
Presenting a corrective to the popular notion of Rosa Parks as the quiet seamstress who, with a single act, birthed the modern civil rights movement, Theoharis provides a revealing window into Parks’s politics and years of activism. She shows readers how this civil rights movement radical sought—for more than a half a century—to expose and eradicate the American racial-caste system in jobs, schools, public services, and criminal justice.
In she married Raymond Parks, who encouraged her to return to high school and earn a diploma. She later made her living as a seamstress. African Americans constituted some 70 percent of the ridership. On November 13, , the U. In Parks moved with her husband and mother to Detroit , where from to she was a member of the staff of Michigan Congressman John Conyers, Jr. In she cofounded the Rosa and Raymond Parks Institute for Self Development to provide career training for young people.
He now works as a freelance writer in Florida. Rosa Parks has been called "the first lady of civil rights" and "the mother of the freedom movement," thanks to her courageous refusal to give up her seat to a white passenger on a Montgomery bus in Alabama on December 1, Her act of defiance, and the bus boycott that followed, became a key symbol of the American Civil Rights Movement. Rosa Parks was born in Tuskegee, Alabama, on February 4, Her mother was a teacher and her father was a carpenter. When her parents split, Parks went to live in Pine Level, just outside the state capital, Montgomery, with her mother.
Her refusal to surrender her seat to a white male passenger on a Montgomery, Alabama bus, December 1, , triggered a wave of protest December 5, that reverberated throughout the United States. Her quiet courageous act changed America, its view of black people and redirected the course of history. Her brother, Sylvester McCauley, now deceased, was born August 20, Later, the family moved to Pine Level, Alabama where Rosa was reared and educated in the rural school. She, however, was unable to graduate with her class, because of the illness of her grandmother Rose Edwards and later her death. She received her high school diploma in , after her marriage to Raymond Parks, December 18,
Rosa Parks, African American civil rights activist whose refusal to give up her seat on a bus to a white man ignited the U.S. civil rights movement.
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20 Facts About Rosa Parks
By refusing to give up her seat to a white man on a Montgomery, Alabama, city bus in , black seamstress Rosa Parks — helped initiate the civil rights movement in the United States. - Rosa Parks was a civil rights leader whose refusal to give up her seat to a white passenger on a segregated bus led to the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
The United States Congress has called her "the first lady of civil rights" and "the mother of the freedom movement". Blake 's order to relinquish her seat in the "colored section" to a white passenger, after the whites-only section was filled. Parks was not the first person to resist bus segregation, but the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People NAACP believed that she was the best candidate for seeing through a court challenge after her arrest for civil disobedience in violating Alabama segregation laws. Parks' prominence in the community and her willingness to become a controversial figure inspired the black community to boycott the Montgomery buses for over a year, the first major direct action campaign of the post-war civil rights movement. Her case became bogged down in the state courts, but the federal Montgomery bus lawsuit Browder v. Gayle succeeded in November Parks' act of defiance and the Montgomery bus boycott became important symbols of the movement.
On December 1, , Rosa Parks solidified her place in the history books by refusing to give up her bus seat to a white passenger—an arrestable offense in then-segregated Montgomery, Alabama. That quiet act of defiance helped kick-start the Civil Rights Movement and made Parks a household name. Here are some facts worth knowing about the icon on what would have been her th birthday. Though Rosa Parks enjoyed school , she dropped out at age 16 to take care of her dying grandmother. She received her diploma in , making her part of the mere 7 percent of African Americans at the time to earn the distinction. Part of her duties included traveling across the state and interviewing victims of discrimination and witnesses to lynchings. After moving from Alabama to Detroit, Parks worked as an assistant to U.